Big tech accountability? Read how we got here in  The Closing of the Net 

Miguel Vargas Martin, Miguel A. Garcia-Ruiz, Arthur Edwards (2011) , Technology for Facilitating Humanity and Combating Social Deviations .

IGI Global. See p200.

 The leading principle in the EU on the liability of Internet  Service Providers has been that of “mere conduit” (Article 12, Directive on electronic Commerce) Critics believe that legal proposals such as the Telecommunications Package attempt to make the ISPs liable for the data that is being run through their systems – thereby creating a monitored Internet (see Horten 2008).

Horten, M (2008) The Telecoms Package and the copyright amendments  - a European legal framework to stop downloading and monitor the Internet, 28 June 2008.


Iptegrity in brief is the website of Dr Monica Horten. I’ve been analysing analysing digital policy since 2008. Way back then, I identified how issues around rights can influence Internet policy, and that has been a thread throughout all of my research. I hold a PhD in EU Communications Policy from the University of Westminster (2010), and a Post-graduate diploma in marketing.   I’ve served as an independent expert on the Council of Europe  Committee on Internet Freedoms, and was involved in a capacity building project in Moldova, Georgia, and Ukraine. I am currently (from June 2022)  Policy Manager - Freedom of Expression, with the Open Rights Group. For more, see About Iptegrity is made available free of charge for  non-commercial use, Please link-back & attribute Monica Horten. Thank you for respecting this.

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States v the 'Net? 

Read The Closing of the Net, by me, Monica Horten.

"original and valuable"  Times higher Education

" essential read for anyone interested in understanding the forces at play behind the web."

Find out more about the book here  The Closing of the Net


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Copyright Enforcement Enigma launch, March 2012

In 2012, I presented my PhD research in the European Parliament.


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